THE UNBELIEVABLE TRUTH
The Paradoxical Nature of the Universal Mind
This article seeks to explain the creation, structure and function of the universe in terms of paradoxical logic. Its basic premise is that the universe is fundamentally psychological in nature and contains within it two paradoxical states – Truth, which is wholly unified, and Delusion which is highly disintegrated. Both states exist because of logic – Truth has no reason to deny its own existence, while Delusion denies its own existence for no reason. A second level of paradox, within the state of Delusion, also exists – unreasoning fear and the fearful denial of unreasoning fear. The universe as we know it is presented as a complex delusional state that is both a symptom of loss of self-communication and also the raw material out of which a new self-communication system is being constructed. The human experience of confusion over self-identity is discussed as a representation of the universal problem. Some ways in which both science and religion are true and delusional are discussed.
This article is based on 14 years intensive psychological research carried out by myself and Robert J. Burrowes. As nonviolent activists, we undertook the research to discover the deep psychological roots of self-destructive human behavior (including our own). The philosophical outcomes were an unexpected gain, and this article is a brief and preliminary attempt to communicate my conception of the universe developed through our largely experiential research process.
It was only when I thought to explain the universe in terms of insanity
that everything finally began to make sense
Jarakis (term created by RJB): the mind paralysed by unreasoning terror
Paradox: the simultaneous existence of two contradictory states
Delusion: a belief in something that is not true, but that is experienced and acted upon as ‘real’ by the mind
Illusion: the creation (generally physical) of something that represents the delusion held in the mind
Self-awareness/Consciousness/Fearless Awareness: the capacity of the individual or universal self to internally focus its awareness on aspects (or the totality) of its own functioning and dysfunctioning
Unconsciousness: the unnecessary, unreasonable and inherently painful ‘forgetting’ of how to sense one’s own existence from the inside.
The Psychological Universe
My current conception of the universe is that it is, fundamentally, a psychological entity. I believe that the conception of the universe as a mind provides a core understanding which can account for all other aspects (including spiritual, physical, biological, emotional, social and artistic manifestations) of universal existence. However, the Universal Mind as I understand it is not equivalent with a ‘Mind of God’ who created the universe with a clear conscious purpose. Rather, this mind is paradoxical: it has two basic states of being – Truth (or awareness of the Truth) and Delusion (or the denial of awareness of the Truth). To help the reader get a ‘feel’ for this paradox, one should not think of these two states as two entirely separate mentalities (God versus the Devil, Good versus Evil, Truth versus Delusion) – in paradox there is no concept of ‘either/or’, even though it is difficult to grasp the idea that two opposites can exist at the same ‘time’ in precisely the same ‘space’. As I will explain, each state has an internal logic that defines it, and therefore logic is the feature which unites these two opposite states within the one Universal Self.
The Simplicity of Truth
Some people argue that there is no such thing as an ultimate Truth – that all things are relative, or that subjective perceptions ‘create’ reality in a way that makes all perceptions equally valid (or invalid). However, my experiential research and reasoning so far suggests that the Truth does exist and its nature is as follows: the Truth is a wholly unified state of being. This state is not limited by any form of disintegration or rule (such as time or space, for instance), it is fully aware of itself, it is totally unafraid and loving of its own nature, and it recognises delusion as delusion, and is therefore completely invulnerable to being broken, hurt, confused, manipulated or destroyed. It is possible that I have experienced this unified state of being, or something representing it, once in a dream. As I awoke, I was aware of losing consciousness of an extraordinary (and completely inexplicable) quality of feeling, but I could remember two aspects of the dream clearly: I was in a place which, physically, was an unbroken field of white light, and I had a sense of being both where I was (at my viewing point, although I had no body) and everywhere else at the same time. This unified state of being exists ‘eternally’, or more accurately, it is undisintegrated by time and exists simultaneously with the more familiar ‘disintegrated’ universe.
My conception of the True state of being of the universe has some elements in common with a variety of religious and philosophical concepts, including the Vedic concept of Brahma, the Buddhist concept of Enlightenment, Platonic and Stoic conceptions of the ‘ideal god’, some aspects of the Christian concept of God and Islamic concept of Allah, and the recurring ‘white light’ theme of near-death experiences – these similarities may lend credibility to my ideas or detract from them depending on the reader’s attitude to religious/spiritual conceptions of reality. Throughout my early life I was an atheist, and to the extent that I knew of any of these concepts, I was disinclined to take them seriously as possible descriptions of reality. Therefore, it was my own personal emotional and (eventually) spiritual experience that formed the foundations of my conclusions about ultimate Truth, and I have only since then gained a sense of connection with the spiritual experiences and beliefs of others. Never having lost a strong belief in reason, logic and evidence, however, I had no interest in declaring my ‘faith’ beyond rational explanation and, in fact, I did not find my subjective experience at odds with my intellect. Applying logic to the Truth as I subjectively experienced it, I believe that what I have described as ultimate Truth is the fully functional, undivided state of a sane mind and, by definition, this state has reason to exist: it is logically impossible for Truth to deny its own existence, and if we are referring to the fundamental principle of Truth, that existence must be total (not divided or relational to anything else).
The Complexity of Delusion
So what logic could apply to the fundamental principle of Delusion? When I considered insane attitudes and behaviours of myself and humans generally, I could always trace the dysfunction back to a basic ‘cause’ – terror of, and belief in, the death of the self. But I kept asking myself, why should terror exist in the first place, in a universe which is generally presented by both science and religion as rational (if not well understood)? Eventually a simple answer occurred to me: at the beginning of the universe as we know it, Delusion (alternatively labelled Insanity, the Terror of Awareness or Jarakis) came into existence for no reason at all. This was, paradoxically, entirely logical and inevitable, for it is the nature of insanity to exist without reason: to deny itself awareness of the Truth (the fundamental existence of self) on the delusional basis that awareness of the Truth is frightening and necessary to be avoided. Restated more simply, Delusion is a terrified and insane rejection of awareness of the Truth and it exists (logically) for no reason.
So, rather than continuing to puzzle over the original ‘cause’ of the universe (God’s conscious will or the search for a first physical cause extending impossibly to infinity), if we accept that this universe is in fact a delusional state, it does not actually need a reason to exist. Nothing within the state of Truth caused Delusion to occur – while Truth logically allows itself to exist wholly and forever, Delusion creates itself through its own internal logic of denial. And, while Truth’s logic causes it to be simple, unified and ‘at peace’ with itself, Delusion’s logic causes it to be complex, disintegrated and ‘on the run’ from itself.
So, at the beginning of the universe, the first delusion believed by Delusion was that it was dead – it had been completely and permanently cut off from awareness of the Truth such that it no longer had even a conception that the Truth existed. Delusion’s loss of consciousness did not change the unified, unchanging existence of Truth in any way but, unable to recognise that its belief in death had been created by its own insanity, Delusion created an illusion for itself that represented the delusion: what physical scientists call the Void – the dark nothingness of non-existence. So, from the newly born Delusion’s point of view, this was the moment that the lights went out (though it had no memory of them existing), and spacetime was created as Delusion fled the reality of permanent, unified existence.
It is the nature of Delusion, however, to not only be afraid of and deny its awareness of the Truth, but to be afraid of and deny its awareness of itself. Hence, having created an illusion representing non-existence, Delusion ran from awareness of what it had done by delusionarily believing it was alive and creating an illusion of existence. This illusion of existence is what we experience as the ‘real’ universe, of which we ourselves are a part. So, in addition to the initial paradox of the simultaneous existence of Truth and Delusion, it is the nature of Delusion itself to be paradoxical – ‘our’ universe is therefore constructed from a delusional negative state (the Void) which has been ‘covered’ by a delusional positive state (the physical universe), both of which exist simultaneously. As it has evolved, the delusional universe has continually re-presented this negative/positive paradox in many (possibly all) aspects of its existence. For example, the universe is in a simultaneous process of construction and deconstruction, as the creation of each new moment is the destruction of the last; living organisms are internally programmed to both live and die, and spend their lifespans running both programs simultaneously; and, above a certain point of balance, the more energy any living organism or group of organisms applies to gaining control over itself, others or the environment, the more conflict, chaos and loss of control is generated.
Most bizarrely of all, while the action of Delusion is, by its nature, unconscious and therefore self-defeating, I have encountered a ‘Universal Awareness’ (which seems distinct from the ultimate Truth) which appears to know every detail of universal construction (past, present and future) and to be subtly assisting Delusion make the right unconscious moves to eventually develop awareness of itself. I do not yet fully understand how this Universal Awareness operates, but I can tentatively state that it functions according to the principle of ‘unity’, that is, conscious self-identification with all disintegrated parts. It is possible that this Universal Awareness is the mind state that will occur in our future when Delusion has fully woken up to itself and, no longer believing in or being limited by spacetime, is able to ‘go back in time’ to assist its earlier, delusional mentality become conscious. (Time travel paradox is a common theme in science fiction – perhaps this represents more truth than fiction.)
A Disintegrated Universe of Limited Structure
Unlike True existence, the illusion of existence created by Delusion was fundamentally disintegrated in form – the ‘positive’ delusional universe thus began as the most extreme disintegration imaginable (the Big Bang). Disintegration was achieved by Delusion inventing rules, believing in them, and then creating an illusion of limitations which behaved according to these rules, so that ‘forces’, separate from one another, came into existence. I currently do not know how Delusion came to unconsciously decide on the specific set of rules that formed the structural basis of its new artificial reality, or whether the specifics are in fact significant. Delusion may have created any number of alternative universes that may all serve the same basic purpose – to help it hide from awareness of its terror that it does not exist – but clearly any particular artificial existence must have enough stable structure (relative permanence) to appear genuinely existent or it would not perform its defensive function.
In summary, being too afraid to return to consciousness of its True whole state (because it would have to consciously face its own terror of death to do so), Delusion instead created a ‘substitute’ self of limited structure by disintegrating the unified ‘light’ of its True self. (Interestingly, the Jewish Kabbalistic belief that the universe was created by the fragmentation of a previously whole, ‘divine’ state bears some resemblance to what I have outlined here.)
Outcomes of Disintegration: Reassurance and Conflict
There were two particularly significant outcomes of Delusion’s unconscious disintegration. Firstly, Delusion gained relief from its terrifying ‘aloneness’ by sharing the burden of terror amongst many disintegrated parts and creating an environment in which supportive structured relationships and interactions were possible as a means to provide Delusion with assistance to find a way out of its dysfunctional state. Secondly, despite Delusion’s desire to control itself so that it would not have to experience terror, conflict (with its constant recreation of threat) was an inevitable and entrenched feature of the forced existence created.
Perpetual internal conflict generated pain, which in turn generated evolution – the drive to find a way to escape the pain by, paradoxically, inventing both new ways to hide from awareness of the pain, and structures capable of perceiving the cause of the pain, removing this cause and thus permanently eradicating the pain. This paradox is evident in the way human minds have a natural compulsion to know about the nature of themselves and the world, and use their sensing, emotional, conceptual and behavioural capacities in this pursuit, while simultaneously using an extraordinary variety of mental ‘tricks’ to avoid awareness of reality, thus managing to keep themselves in a state of delusion, or limited awareness, that feels ‘safe’ and familiar.
In essence, then, the delusional universe exists both as a symptom of loss of self-communication and also as the raw material out of which a new self-communication system can be constructed. This construction is both symbolic and physical in nature. At many different levels, the universe paints a picture (or writes a story or acts a play) representing its problem of lack of self-awareness, and at the same time, the universe has come up with a process (evolution) for the biological development of brains (‘mini-minds’ within the greater universal mind) which have varying capacities, interests, levels of sophistication, and tendencies toward conflict and cooperation with other mini-minds, as a way of providing the universe with the means to consciously observe, experience and comprehend the picture it has painted for itself. None of these minds are true individual selves – in one sense, they are ‘defences’ against Delusion’s awareness of itself as a single universal mind. However, the experience of self and loss of self at the individual level is a key evolutionary factor assisting Delusion’s comprehension of its problem at the universal level.
The Human Experience – To Be or Not To Be?
Issues of self are particularly problematic for humans as a species because of the way social pressure (both gross and subtle) within the family and at the wider social level encourages individuals to lose confidence in their capacities for independent sensing, feeling, remembering, thinking, evaluating and behaving. This suppression of the individual is usually presented as being for the ‘good of society’ (or for the good of other individuals considered more ‘important’, ‘expert’ or ‘hard done by’), and with the promise that there will be benefits for the individual that make it ‘worth’ the sacrifice of their own self-trust. During the process of socialisation, individuals become so used to taking on socially imposed beliefs, roles, routines and activities that these become unconscious habits and thus become part of the new self-identity of the individual. Underneath, however, there are constant rumblings from the original self who seeks to remind the socialised ‘identity’ that their original independent nature still exists and does not appreciate being shunted into the darkness of unconscious memory. Each human mind is therefore in a constant state of war with itself, with the natural self seeking safety through independent mental functioning and behaviour, and the social ‘anti-self’ seeking safety through the suppression of independence and obedience to socially defined rules. The situation becomes even more confusing when one considers that social rules are not only often in conflict with natural rules, but also highly inconsistent in themselves. Every person has a different set of rules that define danger and safety – a jumble of emotional/perceptual/behavioural programs that have been copied from others and unconsciously invented by their own mind when genetic and socially copied programs for escaping danger fail. Therefore, as every child knows, it is not always possible to please Mummy and Daddy at the same time (let alone all of one’s siblings, friends, teachers, bullies, neighbours etc), and there are some people who seemingly cannot be pleased at all, regardless of how hard one tries to understand and obey their rules.
Humans have therefore managed to turn the definition of self and the rules of threat and safety into a state of overwhelming confusion and this has led to an exceedingly chaotic, conflictual and painful state of affairs for each human individual and for life on the planet as a whole. This state of conflict is not necessarily experienced consciously by each individual – a general effect of socialisation is to suppress the individual’s display and therefore consciousness of their emotional responses to internal, social and environmental conflict. Additionally, brains have a natural tendency to desensitise themselves to conflictual phenomena that they can’t easily control. And the human brain, more than that of any other living organism, is the specialist, when things get really difficult, of simply ‘pretending this isn’t happening’ by focusing on something less frightening and painful. Temporary desensitisation can have the functional effect of allowing an organism to get relief and thus ‘survive’ in extremely adverse circumstances. However, ‘trained’ or habitual desensitisation such as that encouraged by human society leads to a state of permanent insensitivity that causes the organism to powerlessly ‘put up with’ or ignore threats to its self, fail to act with sensible insight in defence of itself, and take refuge in delusions of control over itself and its environment. Humans therefore have a remarkable capacity to live in and recreate ‘hell’ for themselves, while believing, and even feeling at a superficial level, that they have their lives under control.
As dire as this general situation may seem, from the point of view of universal evolution, Delusion has never had a better opportunity for developing consciousness of its own confused mental state and questioning its original insane assumption that its own True unified, unruled and profoundly sensible self was something that it needed to fear.
Ultimately, I believe that at the point where Delusion has fully communicated with itself about itself (via the universe of physicality, events and mini-minds it has created to represent itself), it will cease to exist, no longer believing its own self-denying delusions and instead, perceiving and identifying with its underlying True fearless, self-loving and unified nature. I believe this will happen for two reasons: firstly, although I can’t provide detailed reasoning for this, I have a strong feeling that Delusion’s logic and internal contradictions must inevitably lead to the rediscovery of consciousness (‘Everything that has a beginning has an end’, to quote the Oracle in the Wachowski brothers’ film The Matrix Revolutions). Secondly, Delusion is carrying out its struggle in an ultimately supportive environment – that is, the universal True Self is totally aware of and unafraid of Delusion’s conflicts, and therefore fully able to love Delusion and trust its capacity to make its way out of its self-generated nightmare, and return ‘home’ to consciousness. I once had the words appear in my mind ‘Awareness is Love’, which I interpreted to mean that it was not healthy for me to deny my own fears and self-destructive impulses, but instead I should feel and allow these to exist so that I can love myself fully. So, while Delusion denies both Truth and itself, and in doing so runs further and further from awareness of itself, Truth does not deny itself or Delusion, encouraging awareness, love and reintegration of the disintegrated self.
Summary and Further Development of Key Concepts
The universe is structured according to two fundamental paradoxes. The first paradox is the simultaneous existence of Truth and Delusion (alternatively labelled Sanity & Insanity; Awareness & the Terror of Awareness; Consciousness & Unconsciousness; Wholeness & Disintegration; Self-Love & Self-Denial; Self-Trust & Self-Betrayal; Liberation & Imprisonment; Peace & Conflict; Fearlessness & Fear) with Truth as the underlying state ‘covered’ but not eradicated by Delusion. The second paradox, within the state of Delusion (and referred to above as the negative/positive paradox), is the simultaneous existence of the Terror of Awareness and the Denial of the Terror of Awareness (the unconscious pretence that there is some reason to be afraid, and the unconscious pretence that one is not frightened) with the Terror of Awareness as the underlying state ‘covered’ but not eradicated by the Denial of the Terror of Awareness. In universal terms these states are represented by the ‘non-existent’ Void and the ‘existent’ physical universe. In human terms this paradox is represented by the person who is obviously panicking but declaring ‘No, no, I’m totally in control’.
If we look at particular universal phenomena both these levels of paradox can be seen at work. For instance, according to my current judgement, religious/spiritual experience can be a genuine perception of the underlying Truth or actions of the Universal Awareness, but religion is full of false negativity (eg. threatening demands for mindless obedience to particular rules, rituals and interpretations; perceptions of God as a dominating terroriser; ‘Satanic’ violence and self-mutilation) and false positivity (eg. the belief that ‘we’re all happy because God loves us’, or that holiness and inner peace can be gained by the ‘disciplined’ denial of one’s natural needs or by the use of crystals, incense and other ‘magical’ paraphernalia). Similarly, science can be genuine observations of universal phenomena and the effort to understand these, but is often distorted by the ‘negative’ denial of the existence of certain phenomena (such as the subconscious mind or other integrated, highly flexible, symbolic or intermittent phenomena that are not easily controlled or artificially recreated for the purpose of repetitive experimentation) as well as by the ‘positive’ delusion that the ever increasing control of phenomena through technology and artificial chemistry will lead to a state of increasing, and perhaps one day total, security and happiness for all. (I am aware that some people believe it is technically possible to Terraform Mars, but I am afraid that, overall, I have only seen evidence of the human capacity, through technological, social and individual psychological dysfunction, to Marsiform the biologically viable Earth.)
Although I believe that the universe we normally think of as real is fundamentally a delusion, this does not lead me to expect to achieve a state of full consciousness of Truth by merely ‘focusing on heaven’, without engaging in the difficulties and conflicts of the world as it exists. On the contrary, it is very obvious to me that I must allow myself to fully experience the world as real (which is certainly how it feels!), letting myself feel deeply all of my reactions to conflict and cooperation, life and death, fear and love, as a means to understand my individual and universal self more truly. In particular, it is most often when I stand up for myself against threats to my selfhood that I become conscious of my deepest fears, and I believe that striving for free, relatively fearless selfhood in this world is in fact necessary as the evolutionary means to achieve the goal of a return to fully unified self-awareness for the universe as a whole.
Fearless awareness is an aspect or level of consciousness that impels one to strategically become aware of, consciously experience and disband the effects of the terror in one’s own mind. Terror is the fearful and insane denial of one’s own existence – a (generally subconscious) dysfunctional mental state that intensifies if it is attacked, denied or controlled out of fear, and that naturally dissipates if it is freely allowed to exist in the mind.
Although there are many elements that make up the practice of fearless awareness, one way of describing it is that it feels like ‘allowing whatever I am focusing on to exist’ rather than mentally backing away from/being scared of/being in conflict with/trying to control/feeling ‘stuck’ about/denying the existence of whatever is requiring my attention. The key to its successful use is to use it to be aware of when I am mentally paralyzed and in denial, and to consciously allow this (often quite uncomfortable) negative state to exist – after a certain period of time, the fear/negativity evaporates naturally and I can now focus on what was underneath it (perhaps an emotion or sensation I was afraid to feel, an event I was afraid to allow to occur, an observation I was afraid to make, an insight or concept I was unable to fully realise or a behaviour I was afraid to enact). Basically, fearless awareness is the process of dealing with panic-stricken loss of consciousness by not panicking about it – if I allow the fear to feel ‘safe’ by giving it time and space to exist, it no longer has anything to panic about and therefore naturally ceases to exist.
My concepts are primarily the result of research conducted with my co-researcher Robert J. Burrowes, involving 1) intensive observations of my own and Robert’s sensing, emotional, conceptual, memory, behavioural and physical functions and dysfunctions, with a particular focus on the genetically based and socially exacerbated interference to the fully integrated functioning of these facets of consciousness, and 2) observations of the functional and dysfunctional aspects of the mentalities of other living organisms, as evidenced by their behaviour.
In addition, I would like to acknowledge some of the people whose concepts, documentation of evidence or personal experience feel particularly significant in helping me to develop, clarify and/or give me confidence in my own conceptions. (Many of these sources date from my early life – since I have come out of a 14 year period of seclusion in 2010, I have discovered many more sources which feel relevant, but I will not list them here.)
- Hal Hartley for the title of his film The Unbelievable Truth.
- Sybil Dorsett (pseudonym), Dr Connie Wilbur and (author) Flora Rheta Schreiber for the description of the extraordinary attributes of an unconscious, disintegrated mind, its suffering and its capacity to reintegrate and heal through self-awareness in Sybil: The True Story of a Woman Possessed by Sixteen Separate Personalities.
- Terry Pratchett, for his concepts of the minds of Tiffany and the hiver (and Granny Weatherwax) in A Hat Full of Sky; Carcer, the murderer in two equally insane minds in Nightwatch; the prison cell with the door barred from the inside in Guards! Guards! and many other conceptual gems in these and other novels.
- Dr Judith Rapoport for her description of the torment of the OCD sufferer who ‘doesn’t know how to know’ in her book The Boy Who Couldn’t Stop Washing: The Experience and Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.
- Roger Penrose for his explanation of quantum theory, with its counterfactuals, non-locality, paradoxes and questions regarding the relationship of consciousness to physical reality, and his own sophisticated mathematical/physical/biological approach to issues of consciousness in his book Shadows of the Mind.
- George Orwell for his concept of the betrayal of love and self-love through terror (the rat-cage) in his novel 1984.
- Terry Gilliam for his portrayal of individual and social manifestations of insanity in his film Brazil.
- Moshe Feldenkrais for his work on functional integration of the body’s musculature (and therefore posture and movement) through applying self-awareness to muscle interrelationships and micro muscle movements.
- Monty Python for the famous ‘Yes, we’re all individuals!’ in their film Life of Brian.
- Karl Marx for his theory of the alienation of workers from their product (which I have extended over time into a theory of the alienation of the self from itself).
- Chris Boucher for his concept of Xoanon, an insane living computer who creates an external world of conflict representing the agony of his own conflictual mind in the television serial Dr Who: The Face of Evil (novelised by Terrance Dicks).
- John Wyndham for his dissertations on evolution, questions regarding the sanity or insanity of God and emphasis on the importance of quality of mind in his novel The Chrysalids.
- David Eddings for his concepts of the ‘awarenesss of the purpose of the Universe’, and the simultaneous negative/positive prophecy in The Belgariad novel series.
- Peter Carey for his concept of ‘waking up in the hell of one’s ordinary life’ in his novel Bliss.
- Julian May for her concepts of Unity, Atoning Unifex and mental evolution through consciousness of pain in her Galactic Milieu Trilogy novels.
- David Attenborough for his television documentaries on nature and biological evolution.
- The Goodies, Monty Python and Matt Groening (The Simpsons) for exposing the rules by not taking them seriously.
- Roger Waters (and David Gilmour) for the album The Wall by Pink Floyd (including the song ‘Comfortably Numb’).
- Mark Seymour for the songs ‘Holy Grail’ and ‘Hear No Evil’ from the album Cut by Hunters and Collectors.
- Tori Amos for the songs ‘Crucify’, ‘Silent All These Years’ and ‘Little Earthquakes’ from the album Little Earthquakes.
- John Lennon for the song ‘Working Class Hero’ from the album Working Class Hero: The Definitive Lennon.
- Peter Gabriel for the song ‘Blood of Eden’ from the album Us.
- Mikel Simic for the song ‘This Broken Dream’ from the album Journey Through the Land of Shadows by Mikelangelo and the Black Sea Gentlemen.
- Tim Hart for his arrangement and performance of ‘The Dalesman’s Litany’ from the album Folk Songs of Olde England Vol. 1 by Tim Hart and Maddy Prior.
I would also like to acknowledge Robert, my beautiful sweetheart, for never failing to love, listen to and look after me; the support of all those who have helped Robert and myself financially and materially since 1996, most especially Jim, Beryl and Tom Burrowes, Dave Keenan and Anahata Giri; and the Universal Awareness for unerringly cornering me into having to face those things I least want to face, but always gain from doing so.
21 August 2012